Howdy folks! , Something has been on my mind for a few years now and I have never been able to find much info or have any luck when I ask someone about it. It might be hard for me to explain it clear enough but I will try my best. In a modal tune..I don’t understand how you can abruptly change to a new key. Take the song So What- I understand that it is centered around D Dorian and moves up to Eflat. I understand that it sounds good because it is similar yet very new and interesting to the ear when it changes. I understand these modes share a few notes and you can use these notes as transitions from mode to mode to make it sound smoother when playing lines. I understand it uses AABA and why the modulation is there and why it sounds good...but I don’t understand how it is possible. Many of the chords are bulit on fourths, there is no harmony that is really functioning, there is no strong leading tone, there is no dominant chord to pull you to the new key. In a tune like Maiden Voyage, I kind of think of each new section or “chord/key change” as it’s own island of sound...how do I know which of these I can choose from and what island I can move to next ?! I once saw a YouTube video with Herbie Hancock at some kind of music event.. maybe it was a college or something. They had the audience pick random notes like c,a, fsharp, etc. and they made a tune like Maiden Voyage on the spot..mainly using Sus chords based on the roots the audience picked out. What I’m trying explain is a don’t understand the theory behind how you can modulate without functioning harmony and how do you pick what your a modulating to ? I understand you want something unrelated so it sounds good to the ear. But in a tune like So What could miles have picked just any other key center other than Eflat for the B section ? Any mode he wanted besides Dorian and phyrigain ? Are most model tunes stuck in the AABA format ? When picking out chords for a fusion backing track how do I know what I can choose from ? Are my options endless and it doesn’t matter what I pick ? I know people will say “if it sounds good it is good” , but I don’t feel comfortable doing something unless I understand the rules that make it possible or what my choices are. Even if I don’t follow the theory I want to do it knowing how I’m not following it rather than just picking random chords and keys. I want to be able to make a basic fusion/modal track and know what I can modulate to. Any time I ask or watch/read a lesson they just modulate but don’t get into things like how it was done and what choices they could have used instead. Anyways I know that was long and it turned into more questions than one. I know it’s a big topic and there isn’t just one answer or way to generalize it here but maybe this will start a discussion that will help me or where to look.