If you really want to know, I will tell you. But you're not going to like what you read. The differences are these (perhaps in order): Bridge design, saddle design. Neck construction type, neck section, type of truss rod perhaps. The nature of the pickup chosen. Chance. We instinctively choose pickups to be paired with other pickups and so you naturally need a differently voiced neck pickup to complement a T style single coil bridge pickup as opposed to a PAF. All these wiring choices you're making, first have to be to make the existing guitar more functional as a whole or you could (I wouldn't) sacrifice the function of one guitar to try to make it more similar to another. So these will innately tend to diverge in tone in this way. All the other stuff with the ash or alder, maple or rosewood is more or less happenstance. In other words you can find examples that meet the various Stereotypes of the wood species but the next ash body or maple neck won't clearly demonstrate adherence to this supposed pattern.